Expositions are used to argue a case for or against a particular position or point of view.


Expositions are organised to include a ‘statement of position’, ‘arguments’ and a ‘reinforcement of position statement’. The number of arguments may vary in expositions. The statement of position stage usually includes a ‘preview of arguments’. Each argument stage consists of a ‘point’ and ‘elaboration’. In the elaboration the argument is supported by evidence. Arguments are ordered according to the writer’s choice, usually according to criteria of strong and weak arguments. The reinforcement of the statement of position restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented.



Common grammatical patterns in exposition include:

  • general nouns, eg ears, zoo
  • abstract nouns, eg policy, government;
  • technical words, eg species of animals;
  • relating verbs, eg It is important …;
  • action verbs, eg We must save …;
  • thinking verbs, eg Many people believe …;
  • modal verbs, eg We must preserve …;
  • modal adverbs, eg Certainly we must try …;
  • connectives, eg firstly, secondly …;
  • evaluative language, eg important, significant, valuable.



Background information

Position statement

Argument 1

Argument 2

Argument 3


Argument 4


Reinforcement of statement of position

Animals in Cages

The children and teachers in Kindergarten at Matraville P.S. have been discussing animals in cages. We think they shouldn’t be kept in cages.


Firstly, not all animals are dangerous. A pet cat likes people and it wouldn’t hurt you.

Secondly, there isn’t enough room for the animals to run around.

They would get bored and it would be bad for their muscles.

Another reason for not keeping animals in cages is that they wouldn’t have anyone to play with.

Lastly, the animals have to be fed by the keeper and they don’t know how to feed themselves, how to find their food and how to hunt.


Therefore, we believe animals shouldn’t be kept in cages. It can be cruel.


Taken from Board of Studies NSW, K-6 English Module NSW.1998





Answer the following questions based on your own experience.

1)      What do you usually do after school?

2)      Do your teachers give you homework everyday?

3)      When do you do your homework?

4)      With whom do you usually do your homework?



Read the text carefully to answer the questions that follow.


The amount of homework give to student needs to be reduced for several reasons. In short, time is limited in many students’ lives. At the same time, other students are showing alarming level of obesity due to sedentary lifestyles. Lastly, family disharmony has increased as a result of stressed parents trying to get their children to do their homework.


Firstly, time is limited. Many students don’t arrive home until 6 pm. This is because they have chosen to play sports which require a few hours of training each week or they engage in cultural activities, which are often taught after school. After they arrive home, they have to unpack their bags, do other daily jobs, have a shower and eat dinner. By the time they have finished these necessities, it is 8 pm. If they have homework, then it is too late t start, and whatever is done may be of poor quality. Therefore it is fair to say there is not enough time after school to complete quality homework.


On the other hand, many other young people are recording high levels of obesity because of their sedentary lifestyles. Traditional homework is not an activity that is known to raise the heart rate and so does nothing to improve our physical fitness. We are constantly being told to become healthier. Why sit still at night time when students have been sitting still in the classroom all day? This is not good for their health and contributes to the high levels of obesity seen today.


Finally, homework places huge amounts of stress on already stressed-out families. In many families both parents are working and the last thing they need is to fight with their children at the end of stressful day. By reducing the amount of nightly homework, the family home would be a much more relaxed place, as it should be.


In conclusion, homework should be reduced. We must recognize that students’ time is limited, sedentary work contributes to the high levels of obesity among Australia’s youth and finally homework can cause an increase in family disharmony. The wellbeing of students is far more important than excessive amounts of homework.


Taken from Text Type. A writing guide for students by Ann Townsend. 2006










Choose the correct answer of the following questions:

1)      What is the purpose of the text?

(A)   to inform the importance of homework

(B)   to analyse and to argue about homework

(C)   to describe homework

(D)   to explain how to do homework

(E)    to amuse the readers of doing homework

2)      What is the type of the text?

(A)   exposition

(B)   explanation

(C)   report

(D)   description

(E)    narrative


3)      The amount of homework give to students … (paragraph 1) is called …

(A)   orientation

(B)   reorientation

(C)   argument

(D)   sequence of events

(E)    statement of position


4)      In which paragraph can you find the arguments?

(A)   paragraph 1,2,3

(B)   paragraph 2,3,4

(C)   paragraph 3,4,5

(D)   paragraph 1,3,5

(E)    paragraph 1,3,4


5)      In conclusion, homework should be reduced (Par. 5) is called …

(A)   argument

(B)   reinforcement of position statement

(C)   statement of position

(D)   sequence of events

(E)    description


One thought on “Text: EXPOSITION

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