A Lesson: set of activities that cover a period of classroom time, usually ranging from forty to ninety minutes.


1)    Goal

To identify an overall purpose you will attempt to accomplish by the end of the class period. For example: Understanding telephone conversations

2)    Objectives

State explicitly what you want students to gain from the lesson.

  • Terminal objective: Final learning outcomes that you will need to measure and evaluate. For example: Students will successfully order menus in a restaurant
  • Enabling Objective: steps you build upon each other and lead to the terminal objective.
    • Students will comprehend and produce the new vocabulary items on ordering menu and restaurants
    • Students will read and understand a menu
    • Students will produce appropriate polite forms of ordering

3)    Materials and Equipments

Handouts, cassette, books, pictures, posters, workbook, magazine, movie, etc

4)    Procedures

a)    Opening (warming up)

b)    Set of activities (whilst/main teaching learning activities)

c)    Closure (closing)

5)    Evaluation : To determine whether your objectives have been accomplished

6)    Extra-Class Work




1)    How to Begin Planning

  • Choosing what to teach
  • Deciding how many chapters or units you should cover (if u use textbook)
  • Sequencing the class hour activities:
    • Assuming that you are already familiar with the curriculum and the overall plan of the textbook
    • Determining what the topic and purpose of the lesson (goal)
    • Considering the curriculum and students’ need, drafting the terminal objective for the lesson
    • Deciding the activities
    • Drafting out the outline of what your lesson look like
    • Planning step by step procedures for carrying out all techniques and or activities.
  • Scripting out a lesson plan:
    • Introductions to activities
    • Directions for task
    • Statements of rules or generalization
    • Anticipated interchanges that could easily bog down or go astray
    • Oral testing technique
    • Conclusions to activities and to class hour
  • Writing a complete script

2)    Variety, Sequencing, Pacing and Timing of the Activities

As you drafting the step-by-step procedures, consider about the variety in interesting techniques, logical sequences, adequately paced (log/short activities, flowing of the activities, good transition)

3)    Gauging Difficulty

Be careful of the difficulties sources: tasks, unclear direction, linguistic. Overcome the wide range of proficiency by individual attention, feedback, and small-group work

4)    Individual Differences

  • For individual differences, consider the majority of students in the class and take several steps:
  • Design techniques that have easy and difficult aspects or items
  • Solicit responses to easier items to harder one.
  • Try to design the techniques that will involve all students actively
  • Use judicious selection to assign members of small groups
  • Use small group and pair work time to circulate and give extra attention to those below or above the norm.

5)    Student Talk and Teachers Talk

Balance the teachers and students’ talk. Plan the lesson that give students chance to talk, produce language, and even initiate their own topics and ideas.

6)    Adapting to an Established Curriculum

  • Your task is NOT to write the curriculum or revise it, but to follow an established curriculum and adapt to it in terms of your particular group of students, their needs, and their goals.
  • Each class hour must contribute to the gals that a curriculum is designed to pursue.
  • Focus on the learners and their needs, rather than your needs or your institution’s need.
  • Point the students into pragmatic, communicative goals to meet their real-life English

7)    Classroom Lesson “Notes”

What sort of lesson ‘notes’ will you actually carry into the classroom with you?


Summary of “How to Plan a Lesson” (HD. Brown, Teaching by Principles)


3 thoughts on “HOW TO PLAN A LESSON

  1. maaf bu mau tanya, apakah ibu punya contoh RPP dengan bahasa inggris?…tolong di share ya bu…saya lagi butuh rekomendasi

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